A state with a long tradition, the meeting point of different cultural and religious influences on the border of Orthodox East and Catholic West, today’s Montenegro is a multi-confessional and multi-ethnic environment functioning in perfect harmony.
At the Berlin Congress of 1878, Montenegro became an internationally recognized country.After World War I and the fall of the Petrović-Njegoš dynasty, Montenegro became part of the newly formed South Slavic states – the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and subsequently the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. After restoring part of its state sovereignty, following World War II, Montenegro had the status of republic, and was a federal member of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.
By the majority decision of its citizens, Montenegro restored its independence on May 21, 2006, becoming an internationally recognised state.
Montenegro is in many ways an interesting and unique part of the globe. For centuries it exists as the state on a turbulent area of the Balkan Peninsula. By its geographical features it is full of amazing contrasts. The two farthest points are connected by only 190 kilometers of the airline, and between this space it seems as the North Pole and the Equator meet each other. Hence, Montenegro is regarded as both the continental and mountainous country.
Almost 80% of the territory of Montenegro consists of forests, pastures and meadows. There are 2883 plant species and subspecies that is, almost a quarter of the European flora is represented on only 0.14% of the continent, as occupied by the territory of Montenegro. Five national parks and a number by law protected objects of the nature cover one-third of Montenegro and protect very rich and diverse flora and fauna, with some species and examples that can be found only here. Montenegro is the country of natural rarities. It has one of two European rain forests, the southernmost fjord in the world, the largest lake in the Balkans, river with the deepest canyon in Europe and the second in the world.
The flag of Montenegro is red with the coat of arms in the middle and with a golden border. The ratio of the length and width of the flag is two to one. The coat of arms in the flag takes up 2/3 of its height. The midpoint of the coat of arms matches the intersection point of the diagonals of the flag. The width of the golden border is 1/20 of the shorter flag edge.
Coat of arms
The coat of arms of Montenegro is in shape of a golden crowned double-headed eagle with wings in flight, with a scepter in its right claw and an orb in its left claw on a red base. On the eagle’s chest is a shield with a golden lion passant. The lion is on a green field (base) with a blue background. The crown above the eagle’s heads and the scepter are golden topped with a cross. The orb is blue with golden shackles and cross.
Montenegro is located between 41º 52´-43º 42´ north latitude and 18º26´- 20 º 22´ east longitudes and belongs to the central Mediterranean that is Southern Europe.
To the north it borders Serbia, to the southeast Kosovo and Albania, to the south it is separated from Italy by the Adriatic Sea and to the west it borders Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Area: 13.812 km²
Population: 620 000
Length of borders: 614 km
Capital: Podgorica (186 000 inhabitants) – administrative and economic centre
Royal capital: Cetinje – historical and cultural centre
Length of the sea coast: 293 km
Number of beaches: 117
Length of beaches: 52 km
Longest beach: Velika plaža (Ulcinj) – 13 km
Highest mountain peaks: Maja Rosit (Prokletije) – 2.524 m, Zla Kolata (Prokletije) – 2534m n.v.; Dobra Kolata (Prokletije)- 2528m v.n.; Bobotov Kuk (Durmitor) -2523 m v.n.
Largest lake: Skadar Lake (391 m²)
Deepest canyon: Tara (1.300 m)
National parks: Durmitor, Biogradska gora, Skadarsko jezero, Lovćen, Prokletije
Largest bay: the Bay of Kotor
Average air temperature: 27.4 ºC (summer)
Maximum sea temperature: 27.1 º C
Average number of sunny days during the year: 240
Swimming season: 180 days
Sea: dark blue
Transparency of the sea: 38-56 m
Time zone: GTM +1
Electrical power system: 220V/50Hz
Regions and cities
For the purposes of strategic planning the country is divided into three geographic regions: northern, central and southern.